FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY (FNAC) & ITS RELIABILITYAS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN CASES OF CERVICAL LYMPHADENOPATHY

Dr. T. Srinivasan, Dr. Michael Lawrence

Abstract


Background: FNAC is a simple, safe, cost effective, quick as well as an efficient diagnostic procedure with relatively no contraindications and no side effects. The aim of this work is to evaluate the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cervical lymph nodes.

Method: 100 patients who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy in the Department of surgery, Government Medical College, Coimbatore were subjected to FNAC using a 10 ml syringe and 22-24 gauge needles. All smears were stained and cytological diagnosis were made by an experienced pathologist. The patients were followed whenever possible. 27 cases were subjected to lymph node biopsy. The cytological results were compared with the histological findings wherever possible.

Results: The age of the patients ranged from 2 to 75 years. Male to Female ratio was 1.2:1.

FNAC diagnosis was divided into Non-Neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Overall Reactive lymphadenitis was the most common finding(41%).Male preponderance was seen in Reactive lymphadenopathy and Female preponderance was seen in chronic granulomatous lesion as well as in metastatic carcinomas. Out of 27 biopsied cases, the overall diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for reactive lymphadenitis, Chronic granulomatous lesions, Hodgkins lymphoma, nonhodgkins lymphoma and metastasis were 87.5%,71.4%, 100%, 80% and 100%.

Conclusion: FNAC of lymph nodes proved to be a very useful tool in the diagnosis and early evaluation of enlarged lymph nodes with high sensitivity and specificity. In many cases, it reduces the need for a surgical procedure to be performed on the patient.


Keywords


cervical lymphadenopathy, Fine needle aspiration cytology, Reactive Lymphadenitis, Granulomatous lesion, Lymphoma

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